Explaining the Trademark-Innovation Linkage the Role. - druid.
The use of trademark data in innovation studies is in its infancy, but the. We empirically test our hypotheses with survey data of new trademark applicants. activity and innovation to show the current state of thinking about trademarks. Trademark law provides economic agents with the opportunity to protect brand owners.This paper surveys empirical studies employing trade mark data that exist in the economic literature to date. Section 1 documents the use of trade marks by firms in several advanced countries.This volume offers a detailed analysis of the issues related to the protection of non-traditional recent years, the domain of trademark law and the scope.This paper surveys empirical studies employing trade mark data that exist in the economic literature to date. Section 1 documents the use of. Kl money changer forex rates. All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. For general information on how to correct material on Re PEc, see these instructions.To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Christine Anne Greenhalgh should log into the Re PEc Author Service.To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item.There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.
The Protection of Non-Traditional Trade Marks - Irene Calboli.
To best of authors’ knowledge for the duration, no other study has been conducted to understand relationship among all three potential models for international technology transfer viz. Foreign Direct Investment FDI, Joint Ventures JV and foreign trade. The empirical result in the study supports and contradicts several pre-existing understandings of domestic technology stock of a developing economy which is presented in detail in latter section.After reviewing the handful of economic studies on this matter, I present a first. literature by complementing the case-based evidence with general empirical findings. p.260 B. Private vs. social returns of trademarks the existing empirical.Abstract. This paper surveys empirical studies employing trade mark data that exist in the economic literature to date. Section 1 documents the use of trade. Forex day trading rules. Access to society journal content varies across our titles.If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box.Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in.
How do intellectual propriety rights (IPRs) help firms profit from their innovation?Innovation literature frequently turns to patents to measure innovative IPR, but more recent work shifts focus to the other side of IPR, namely, trademarks.This article therefore discusses the effects of trademark strategies when companies decide to introduce their product portfolios in a new foreign market. Entrants might opt for a common trademark across different country markets (integration) or use several country-specific trademarks (responsiveness).This empirical study exploits the quasi-natural experiment created by the tariff shock that affected Spain when it joined the European Union in the 1990s.Data from the automotive industry reveal how non-European companies that already operated in other European countries sought to enter Spain rapidly, using various trademark strategies.The product portfolio characteristics are fixed at entry, so this study can specify how and when trademark responsiveness versus integration affects firm performance.
Empirical Studies of Trade Marks The Existing Economic.
The results reveal that trademark responsiveness increases firm performance if the firms suffer high liabilities of foreignness or newness.We thank the editor and three anonymous reviewers, as well as seminar participants at the 2015 Academy of Management Meeting, the 2015 SMS Meeting, 2016 EIBA Meeting, Cass Business School, and the University of Bath for their insightful comments on earlier versions of this paper.Martina Pasquini thanks the European Union support through the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant number 655676 financed by the Horizon 2020 program. This article reflects solely the opinions of the authors and the European Union is not responsible under any aspect of the information contained therein. Cara mengisi borang permohonan untuk lesen perdagangan negeri sarawak. A 2013 study on the empirical effects of trademarks has shown that. "Empirical Studies of Trade Marks – The Existing Economic Literature.This publication is a Science and Policy Report by the Joint Research Centre, the. economic literature, both theoretical and empirical, on the rationale for its. innovation in Europe and measuring the impact of existing policies and. in terms of their use of patents, trademarks and designs while ICT service industries.A similar restriction on the registration of functional marks exists under Singaporean trademark law, under section 73b of the current Trade Marks Act, which prohibits the registration of shapes necessary to obtain a technical result. 15 In Singapore, section 2 of the Trade Marks Act 1998 broadly defines a sign to include “any letter, word, name, signature, numeral, device, brand, heading, label, ticket, shape, colour, aspect of packaging or any combination thereof.” 16 In an.
The gap has narrowed over time for national patent, design right and TM filings but not for UM filings.It is found that, in comparison to men, women are relatively less often single inventors or designers and more often members of inventor or designer teams.)—that is, investments in research and development (R&D), the licensing of inventions, the commercialization of inventions, and the diffusion of technological knowledge via patent databases.Behind every invention there is an inventor or an inventor team. Feng nong trading sdn bhd. [[Micro-level decisions by firms and individuals to invest in R&D determine the macro-level rate and direction of innovation.This is why it is important to analyze who becomes an inventor and what are inventors’ motives (Rossman ).Therefore, it is of great importance to track and analyze the gender gaps in the context of IPRs.
Corporate Taxation and Location of Intangible Assets - FTP.
Finland provides a particularly interesting case as it is among the most gender equal countries in the world and has advanced IPR institutions.The contribution of present study into existing literature is twofold.First, present study extends the “patent gender gap” analysis to other intellectual property rights. To our knowledge, this is among the first studies to analyze gender gaps in the filing of design rights, utility models (UM) and trademarks (TM).Like patents, UMs and design rights are rights to exclude others from commercially using the protected subject.In contrast to patents, they typically protect only physical products and not processes or methods.
Design rights are a means of protecting the aesthetic aspects of products (WIPO ).Second, this study contributes to existing literature on gender-specific collaboration patterns by analyzing gender composition of inventor and designer teams.Studies have thus far shown that women tend to invent in larger patent inventor teams (Mauleón and Bordons A patent is a right to exclude others from the commercial use of the protected invention. Thus, a patenting decision is a signal that the applicant considers the invention to have commercial potential.Patents are also a means of convincing investors to invest in the commercialization of the invention and can be used as collateral in acquiring funding (Long Although there is no reason to expect a gender difference in creativity or ability, most patentees have hitherto been male.Gender-specific choices in education and the low share of female engineers (e.g., Hunt ) are, presumably, among the root causes of the patent gender gap.
Women are less likely to choose science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education, and they also disproportionally quit engineering jobs (Hunt ).Interestingly, there exists a “gender-equality paradox”: the higher the nation’s gender equality, the higher the sex differences in the magnitude of relative academic strengths and pursuit of STEM degree (Stoet and Geary ) report that the share of female patent inventors in patent applications at the European Patent Office (EPO) by inventors from 14 selected countries in 2005 ranged from 2.9% in Austria to 14.2% in Spain. (), the share of women inventors in Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) filings increased from 9.5% in 1995 to 15% in 2015.During the same period, the share of PCT filings with at least one female inventor increased from 17 to 29% (Martinez et al. Fakulti perdagangan. ) report that 13.1% of over 1.2 million inventors listed in U. patent applications filed between 20 or granted between 19 were women. Several studies have also shown that women are underrepresented among academic inventors (Whittington and Smith-Doerr ) report that women researchers are less likely to disclose inventions than men.They estimate that it would take 118 years to reach gender parity in U. The main research question of this study is: “Do gender gaps in design right, UM and TM filings differ from patent gender gaps”.To our knowledge, there are no studies that analyze the gender gaps in the filing of these complementary IPRs.
Design rights protect the aesthetic aspects of a product.Therefore, it is expected that there is not equally strong connection between engineering education and the likelihood of becoming a designer in a design right filing in comparison to the likelihood of becoming an inventor in a patent filing.Moreover, historically women have tended to specialize in inventing and patenting clothing and furniture-related inventions (Khan ), for which design right protection is particularly suitable. Design rights related fees are also lower than patenting fees and the likelihood of receiving a design right registration is higher than the likelihood of a patent grant.Regarding UMs, the link between gender and the number of filings is not clear.UMs are cheaper than patents and the inventive step requirement is lower.