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Expert Management Team. The management team at Aroona Solutions brings together a diverse group of people from a wide range of disciplines including energy, oil and gas, marine, commerce, military, government, large scale logistics and engineering including mechanical, civil, aeronautical and petroleum.Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a. In primary education, students are taught to subtract numbers in the decimal system, starting. Thus, A − B contains two terms, namely A and −B. This allows an easier use of. The minuend digits are m3 = 7, m2 = 0 and m1 = 4.Decimal Point Analytics is a provider of financial research solutions to clients. Decimal. InSync Analytics generates $28.2M more revenue than Decimal Point Analytics. J B Nagar, Andheri - Kurla Road 5A, B- WIng, Trade Star Building.Learn about working at Global Trading Solutions. Join LinkedIn today for free. See who you know at Global Trading Solutions, leverage your professional. Streetzua. The Association of Valuers, Property Managers, Estate Agents and Property Consultants in the Private Sector Malaysia (PEPS) would like to formally endorse the Valuation Management System (VMS) Business Edition software developed by Real Estate Solutions Sdn Bhd (Trading as RE Solutions).VMS Business Edition is a cloud base solution that automates and manages workflows, search transactions, capture data and generate reports.Combining big data analytics, VMS improves operational accuracy, controls and efficiency.As technology plays an ever bigger role in this fast changing digital economy, the valuation profession will need to take active steps to be future-ready for "Industry 4.0".

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The Association is confident that the software meets the standards expected of the valuation profession and is beneficial towards advancing better professionalism and business practices within the industry."VMS has assisted Raine Horne in undertaking indication of values and valuations at a lower cost.Many other tools are available for managing work flow and monitoring productivity in the VMS." Good service provider, flexible and friendly!! Mortgage broker damansara intan. Established in early year 2016, LEXIS CHEMICAL SDN. is a total solution provider for rubber glove industries in Malaysia and international markets.We manufacture and supply specialty chemicals which consist of industrial cleaning agents, polymer coatings, coagulants, specialty chemicals and additives for the rubber glove industry.Securities Markets: Decimal Pricing has Contributed to Lower Trading Costs and a More Challenging Trading Environment (31-MAY-05, GAO-05-535). At the same time, the minimum price increment, or tick size, was reduced to a penny on the stock markets and to 10 cents and 5 cents on the option markets.

Bunny Chan Bun Hoo Sales Director of SNEW TRADING & SOLUTION SDN BHD Sister Company of Soon Ngai Engineering Sdn Bhd. Malaysia Industry Water Treatment Product Distributor Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia 385 kenalanABS ENGINEERING & TRADING SDN BHD ABS is an ISO 9001 certified Engineering company. For over 20 years, we have specialized in the marketing and the provision of total engineering solutions all over the world, using our most advanced technologies in Liquid Pumps, Vacuum & Compressor Pumps.Northern Trading Solutions GmbH ist ein junges Handelsunternehmen aus Hamburg, spezialisiert im Handel mit Rohstoffen aus der chemischen Industrie. Double win capital trading. ** ** ** ** No attempt has been made to display graphic images, although ** ** figure captions are reproduced. United States Government Accountability Office Contents Letter Background Results in Brief Investors' Trading Costs Have Declined Since Decimalization, but Reduced Market Transparency Has Caused Firms to Adopt New Trading Strategies Some Stock Intermediaries Have Experienced Lower Profits since Decimalization, but Other Factors Have Contributed to the Declines Decimal Pricing Has Had a Limited Impact on the Options Markets, but Other Factors Have Helped Improve Market Quality Observations Agency Comments 1 3 6 8 44 60 71 72 Appendixes Appendix I: Scope and Methodology 74 Methodology for Assessing Impact on 74 Institutional Investors Methodology for Assessing Impact on Market 75 Intermediaries Methodology for Assessing Impact on Options 76 Markets Appendix II: Methodology for GAO Analysis of Trade and 77 Quotes Data Measurement of Institutional Investors' Appendix III: Trading Costs in Basis Points Shows Decline since Decimal Pricing Implemented 96 Appendix IV: Additional Analysis Using Trade and Quotes 106 Data Appendix V: GAO Contacts and Staff Acknowledgments 110 111 116 Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Average Quoted Spreads Before and After Decimalization, 2000-2004 (cents per share) 11 Average Effective Spreads Before and After Decimalization, 2000-2004 (cents per share) 12 Volume-weighted Average Effective Spreads Before and After Decimalization for Selected NYSE and NASDAQ Stocks, by Market Capitalization (cents per share) 13 Institutional Investor Positions on Changes to Trading Costs After Decimalization 28 Contents Table 5: Price Change Volatility for NYSE and NASDAQ Stocks Before and After Decimalization 31 Table 6: Average Number of Shares Displayed at the Best Quoted Prices Reported by NYSE and NASDAQ in Studies of Their Markets Before and After Decimalization 32 Table 7: Average Trade Size for NYSE and NASDAQ, 1999-2004 (in shares) 37 Table 8: NYSE Specialist Firm Revenues and Profits, 1999-2004 (in millions of dollars) 47 Table 9: NYSE Reported Trades, Average Daily Volume, and Average Trade Size, 1999-2004 49 Table 10: NYSE Member Broker-Dealer Revenues from NASDAQ Market Making Activities, 1999-2004 (in millions of dollars) 50 Table 11: NASDAQ Average Trade Size, and Average Daily Volume, 1999-2004 51 Table 12: Number of Specialist Firms Operating on Selected Stock Markets, 1999-2004 51 Table 13: Consolidation among NASDAQ Market Makers, 1999-2004 52 Table 14: Pre- and Postdecimalization Sample Weeks 81 Table 15: Price Characteristics of NYSE-Listed and NASDAQ Stocks 86 Table 16: Volume Characteristics of NYSE-Listed and NASDAQ Stocks 88 Table 17: Average Quoted Spreads Before and After Decimalization, 2000-2004 (basis points) 106 Table 18: Average Effective Spreads Before and After Decimalization, 2000-2004 (basis points) 107 Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Average Quoted Spreads Before and After Decimalization (cents per share) 10 Total Trading Costs from a Trade Analytics Firm for NYSE and NASDAQ Stocks, 1999-2003 (cents per share) 17 Trading Cost Components from a Trade Analytics Firm for NYSE and NASDAQ Stocks, 20 (cents per share) 19 Total Trading Costs from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NYSE, 1998-2004 (cents per share) 21 Total Trading Costs from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NASDAQ Stocks, 1998-2004 (cents per share) 22 Contents Figure 6: Trading Cost Components from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NYSE Stocks, 20 (cents per share) 23 Figure 7: Trading Cost Components from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NASDAQ Stocks, 20 (cents per share) 24 Figure 8: Volume-weighted Average Number of Shares Displayed at the Best Quoted Prices on the NYSE and NASDAQ Before and After Decimalization, Sample Weeks from February 2000-November 2004 33 Figure 9: Proportion of Total Share Trading Volume NASDAQ and NYSE Stocks by ECNs, 1996-2003 40 Figure 10: Securities Industry Total Revenues and Net Income, 1994-2004 46 Figure 11: NYSE Specialist Participation Rates, 1999-2004, in Percent of Trades 48 Figure 12: Securities Industry Revenues and Net Income as Compared to the Performance of the S&P 500 Stock Index, 1994-2004 54 Figure 13: Number of IPOs and Dollars Raised, 1994-2004 58 Figure 14: Total Contract Trading Volumes for Stock Options, 2000- 2004 (Volume in millions) 63 Figure 15: Distribution of Average Daily Closing Prices for Full Sample of Matching Stocks and 300 Matched-Pairs Sample 87 Figure 16: Distribution of Average Daily Trading Volume for Full Sample of Matching Stocks and 300 Matched-Pairs Sample 89 Figure 17: Total Trading Costs from a Trade Analytics Firm for NYSE and NASDAQ Stocks, 1999-2004 (basis points) 98 Figure 18: Trading Cost Components from One Trade Analytics Firm for NYSE and NASDAQ, 2001-2003 (basis points) 99 Figure 19: Total Trading Costs from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NYSE Stocks, 2001-2004 (basis points) 101 Figure 20: Total Trading Costs from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NASDAQ Stocks, 2001-2004 (basis points) 102 Figure 21: Trading Cost Components from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NYSE Stocks, 20 (basis points) 103 Figure 22: Trading Cost Components from Two Trade Analytics Firms for NASDAQ Stocks, 20 (basis points) 104 Figure 23: Quote Clustering After Decimalization, 2001-2004 108 Contents Figure 24: Quote Clustering After Decimalization, by Sample Week, 2001-2004 109 Contents Abbreviations Amex American Stock Exchange ATS alternative trading system BOX Boston Options Exchange bps basis points CBOE Chicago Board Options Exchange CQ Consolidated Quotes CMS composite match score ECN electronic communication network FOCUS Financial and Operational Combined Uniform Single GAO Government Accountability Office IBM International Business Machines IPO initial public offering ISE International Securities Exchange MMID market maker identification mps messages per second NASD National Association of Securities Dealers NASDAQ National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations NBB national best bid NBO national best offer NBBO national best bid and offer NMS National Market System NYSE New York Stock Exchange OPRA Options Price Reporting Authority OTC over-the-counter OTCBB over-the-counter bulletin board PCX Pacific Exchange Phlx Philadelphia Stock Exchange SEC Securities and Exchange Commission SIA Securities Industry Association TAQ Trade and Quote VWAP volume weighted average price This is a work of the U. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States.Tables are included, but ** ** may not resemble those in the printed version. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further permission from GAO.** ** ** ** Please see the PDF (Portable Document Format) file, when ** ** available, for a complete electronic file of the printed ** ** document's contents. However, because this work may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately.** ** ** ****************************************************************** GAO-05-535 United States Government Accountability Office GAO Report to Congressional Requesters May 2005 SECURITIES MARKETS Decimal Pricing Has Contributed to Lower Trading Costs and a More Challenging Trading Environment a GAO-05-535 [IMG] May 2005 SECURITIES MARKETS Decimal Pricing Has Contributed to Lower Trading Costs and a More Challenging Trading Environment What GAO Found Trading costs, a key measure of market quality, have declined significantly for retail and institutional investors since the implementation of decimal pricing in 2001. A United States Government Accountability Office Washington, D. 20548 May 31, 2005 The Honorable Michael Enzi United States Senate The Honorable Rick Santorum United States Senate With encouragement from Congress, in 2000 the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) ordered U. stock and option markets to begin quoting prices in decimal increments rather than fractions of a dollar.1 As U. markets implemented decimal pricing in early 2001, they also reduced the minimum price increment, or tick size, at which prices could be quoted. Many market participants and others who have observed the markets believe that decimal pricing has benefited small retail investors seeking to buy or sell a few hundred shares of stock.3 But concerns have been raised that the smaller tick size has made trading more challenging and costly for large institutional investors, including mutual funds and pension plans, that trade large blocks of shares.4 In addition, concerns exist over whether trading in 1-cent ticks has negatively affected the financial livelihood of market intermediaries, such as the broker-dealers that trade on floor-based 1A stock is a security that signifies an ownership position in a company.

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WNW is an Engineering Trading Company specialist in offering extensive and quality Plastic Material Products covers from Pipes; Fittings; Manual & Actuated Valves and Instrumentation. Our Mission We always emphasis on Win and Win situation to ensure a long working relationship regardless whether it is between our value customer or between our.Established in early year 2016, LEXIS CHEMICAL is a total solution provider for rubber glove industries in Malaysia and international markets. We manufacture and supply specialty chemicals which consist of industrial cleaning agents, polymer coatings, coagulants, specialty chemicals and additives for the rubber glove industry.With MiFID II/MiFIR, applicable since January 3rd 2018, trading. member shall match with the short code / long code solution provided to the trading venues. { DECIMAL – 18/5} in case the quantity is expressed as monetary or. responsible for the investment decision, as set out in Article 143b. Mt5 forex brokers uk. Although trading is less costly, the move to the 1-cent tick has reduced market transparency. However, large investors have adapted by breaking up large orders into smaller lots and increasing their use of electronic trading technologies and alternative trading venues. 4Institutional investors are entities, such as mutual funds, insurance companies, pension plans, or charitable organizations, that invest on behalf of themselves or others.Fewer shares are now generally displayed as available for purchase or sale in U. Although conditions in the securities industry overall have improved recently, market intermediaries, particularly exchange specialists and NASDAQ market makers, have faced more challenging operating conditions since 2001. Such investors typically have large pools of assets and buy and sell securities in large quantities or blocks. As agreed with your staffs, our objectives were to study the impact of decimal pricing on (1) retail and institutional investors, (2) market intermediaries, and (3) options market investors and intermediaries.From 2000 to 2004, the revenues of the broker-dealers acting as New York Stock Exchange specialists declined over 50 percent, revenues for firms making markets on NASDAQ fell over 70 percent, and the number of firms conducting such activities shrank from almost 500 to about 260. The stock markets classify block trades as those involving 10,000 shares or more. This report responds to your February 12, 2004, request that we study the impact of decimal pricing on the trading of U. To determine the effect of decimalization on retail and institutional investors in securities, we analyzed a comprehensive database of all trades conducted on U. stock markets from February 2000 to November 2004 to identify changes to key characteristics of stock markets, such as spreads, liquidity, trading volumes, and price volatility.5 We also analyzed data on institutional investors' trading costs that were provided by three trade analytics firms in order to identify trends in these costs before and after decimalization.

INTERNATIONAL TRADING PROFILE "An International Trading Industry" ITP have been evolving at warp speed since the years 2009. We provide premium quality global trading and supply chain services to broad range of industries. We aim to promote core capabilities and achieve stable growth to become a international top trading company.Pengerang LNG Two Sdn Bhd 65% Pengerang Gas Solutions Sdn Bhd 51% PETRONAS Dagangan Berhad 69.88% PETRONAS Lubricants Marketing Malaysia Sdn Bhd 100% PETRONAS Aviation Sdn Bhd 100% PDB Netherlands B. V. 100% PETRONAS International Marketing Thailand Co. Ltd 100% Kuala Lumpur Aviation Fuelling System Sdn Bhd 65%OPULENT SOLUTIONS SDN. BHD. is a company registered with Suruhanjaya Syarikat Malaysia and and is issued with the registration number 829545-K for its business operation. [[We sought the perspectives of other market participants, including representatives from regulatory agencies, stock markets, industry associations, and institutional investors.To determine the effect of decimal pricing and the tick size reductions on investors and intermediaries in the options market, we reviewed studies by options exchanges; interviewed representatives of all six U. options markets, as well as broker-dealers and hedge funds that trade options; and reviewed comment letters that SEC received on potential changes in options market regulations.Appendixes I and II contain a full description of our scope and methodology. C., between May 2004 and May 2005 in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. The quality of a market can be assessed using various characteristics, but the trading costs that investors incur when they execute orders are a key aspect of market quality.

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We conducted our work in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and 5This analysis used the Trade and Quotes (TAQ) database maintained by the New York Stock Exchange. Background In implementing decimal pricing, regulators hoped to improve the quality of U. Trading costs are generally measured differently for retail and institutional investors.The TAQ contains records of all trades and price quotes from all U. In addition to the commission charges to paid broker-dealers that execute trades, the other primary trading cost for retail investors, who typically trade no more than a few hundred shares at a time, is measured by the spread, which is the difference between the best quoted "bid" and "ask" prices that prevail at the time the order is executed.The bid price is the best price at which market participants are willing to buy shares, and the ask price is the best price at which market participants are willing to sell shares.6 The spread represents the cost of trading for small orders because if an investor buys shares at the ask price and then immediately sells them at the bid price, the resulting loss or cost is represented by the size of the spread. Full time forex trader singapore. Because institutional orders are generally much larger than retail orders and completing one order can require multiple trades executed at varying prices, spreads are not generally used to measure institutional investors' trading costs.Instead, the components of trading costs for large institutional investors, who often seek to buy or sell large blocks of shares such as 50,000 or 1 million shares, include the order's market impact, broker commissions paid, and exchange fees incurred, among other things.An order's market impact is the extent to which the security changes in price after the investor begins trading.

For example, if the price of a stock begins to rise in reaction to the increased demand after an investor begins executing trades to complete a large order, the average price at which the investor's total order is executed will be higher than the stock's price would have been without the order.6In general, for a given stock transaction the best bid (ask) price represents the highest (lowest) price available from all U. market venues providing quotes to sellers (buyers) of the stock.This is known as the national best bid and offer, or NBBO. Pokemon trading card game championship. In addition to trading costs, decimal pricing may have affected several other aspects of market quality, including liquidity, transparency, and price volatility. Liquid markets have many buyers and sellers willing to trade and have sufficient shares to execute trades quickly without markedly affecting share prices.Generally, the more liquid the overall market or markets for particular stocks are, the lower the market impact of any individual orders.Small orders for very liquid stocks will have minimal market impact and lower trading costs.

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However, larger orders, particularly for less liquid stocks, can affect prices more and thus have greater market impact and higher trading costs. When markets are transparent, the number and prices of available shares are readily disclosed to all market participants, and prices and volumes of executed trades are promptly disseminated.A key factor that can affect market participants' perceptions of market transparency is the volume of shares publicly displayed as available at the best quoted bid and ask prices, as well as at points around these prices-known as market depth.Markets with small numbers of shares displayed in comparison to the size of investors' typical orders seem less transparent to investors because they have less information that can help them specify the price and size of their own orders so as to execute trades with minimal trading costs. Price volatility is a measure of the frequency of price changes as well as a measure of the amount by which prices change over a period of time. Champa asia trade. Highly volatile markets typically disadvantage investors that execute trades with less certainty of the prices they will receive. securities markets is facilitated by brokerdealers that act as market intermediaries.Conversely, market intermediaries, such as broker-dealers, can benefit from highly volatile markets because they may be able to earn more revenue from trading more frequently as prices rise and fall. These intermediaries perform different functions depending on the type of trading that occurs in each market.On markets that use centrally located trading floors to conduct trading, such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), trading occurs primarily through certain broker-dealer firms that have been designated as specialists for particular stocks.

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These specialists are obligated to maintain fair and orderly markets by buying shares from or selling shares to the other broker-dealers who present orders from customers on the trading floor or through the electronic order routing systems used by the exchange.Interacting with the specialists on the trading floor are employees from large broker-dealer firms that receive orders routed from these firms' offices around the country.In addition, specialists receive orders from staff from small, independent broker-dealer firms who work only on the floor. In contrast, trading of the stocks listed on the NASDAQ Stock Market (NASDAQ), which does not have a central physical trading location, is conducted through electronic systems operated by broker-dealers acting as market makers or by alternative trading venues.For particular stocks, market makers enter quotes indicating the prices at which these firms are simultaneously willing to buy from or sell shares to other broker-dealers into NASDAQ's electronic system.The NASDAQ system displays these quotes to all other broker-dealers that are registered to trade on that market.